Algorithm for Describing Spherically Symmetric Metrics of a Gravitational Field ─ Using Space, Time & Angle Metric Components & Metric Coefficients
By
Robert Louis Kemp
Super Principia Mathematica
The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics
Flying Car Publishing Company
P.O Box 91861
Long Beach, CA 90809
January 25, 2013
Abstract
This paper described a new algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric; using Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients; and likewise using a general algorithm which is composed of, Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients.
In this paper a general introduction to basic mathematical concepts for the geometric description of Euclidean “FlatSpace” Geometry and NonEuclidean “CurvedSpace” Geometry, and Spherically Symmetric Metric equations which are used for describing the causality and motion of the “Gravitational” interaction between mass with vacuum energy space, and the mass interaction with mass.
This paper gives a conceptual and mathematical description of the differential geometry, of flat and curved space, spacetime, or gravitational fields, using the “metric theory” mathematics of Euclidean, Minkowski, Einstein, and Schwarzschild, Spherically Symmetric metrics, and geodesic line elements.
Keywords: General Relativity, Special Relativity, Einstein Field Equation, Gravitational Field, Black Hole Event Horizon, Spherically Symmetric Metric, Euclidean Geometry, NonEuclidean Geometry, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, Schwarzschild Metric, Physical Singularity, Coordinate Singularity, Perfect Fluid Vacuum Energy, Aether, Gravity, Spacetime Curvature, Flat Spacetime, Curved Spacetime, Geodesic, Metric Theory of Gravitation,
Contents
· 1.0 Introduction
1. Introduction
This work is written to physicists that are interested in understanding from a conceptual view, the description of “Flat Geometry” Euclidean Space, or “Curved Geometry” NonEuclidean Space, for describing causality for gravity motion, and the “Gravitational” interaction between mass with vacuum energy space, and the mass interaction with mass.
In this paper, I do weave some of my own theory, ideas, and mathematics into these well established physics concepts and mathematics; therefore, this work is written for those that have a very good basis and understanding, of the concepts of differential geometry, and General Relativity; to be able to distinguish what is newly proposed, and what is being discussed in general throughout this paper.
In this work I have limited the discussion only to the: Euclidean, Minkowski, Einstein, and Schwarzschild Spherically Symmetric Metrics, and geodesic line elements, of space, spacetime, or the gravitational field, however there are many other geometric “metric” equations, and theories of gravitation, that are accepted by the mainstream physics. And there are many “Spherically Symmetric Metrics” that are in use in physics today.
In a paper written by M.S.R. Delgaty and Kayll Lake (1998) “Physical Acceptability of Isolated, Static, Spherically Symmetric, Perfect Fluid Solutions of Einstein’s Equations”[1], they describe various “Spherically Symmetric Metrics” () equations.
M.S.R. Delgaty and Kayll Lake ”[1], state,
“It is fair to say then that most of the spherically symmetric perfect fluid “exact solutions” of Einstein’s field equations that are in the literature are of no physical interest.”
And likewise in a paper by, Petarpa Boonserm, Matt Visser, and Silke Weinfurtner (2005) “Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity” [2], they describe that there are over 127 solutions to the “Spherically Symmetric Metrics”.
But only nine (9) of those “metric” equations satisfy the criteria for predicting actual physical measurable results.
The various “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), equations which are either Euclidean or NonEuclidean, describes physical and observable results of gravitational interaction between mass and space, and between mass and mass, predicts that the vacuum energy, and inertial matter in motion interact, through a space, spacetime, or gravitational field, that is either flat or curved, and surrounding a localized gravity source, that is either matter dependent, or matter independent, is described in the following sections of this paper.
The “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), and the “Geodesic Line Element” (), are used for describing the “flat” or “curved” Differential Geometry of Space, Time, & Surfaces, of spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gradient gravitational field, in the presence or absence of condensed mass, matter, or energy.
Furthermore, the “Spherically Symmetric Metric” () can describe the space, spacetime or a gravitational field, of or surrounding the: universe, stars, planets, galaxies, quasars, electrons, protons, neutrons, atoms, molecules, photons, etc…
In this work, a new algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric; using one general equation which is composed of, Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients.
And likewise there is a general algorithm which is composed of, Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients.
In future works, a new algorithm, that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric using a general equation which is composed of:
· Four (4) Metric Components & Four (4) Metric Coefficients
The Four (4) Metric Components & Four (4) Metric Coefficients algorithm is the current model used by the mainstream literature, and physics community; today.
1.1. Algorithm for Describing Spherically Symmetric Metrics of a Gravitational Field Using – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients
A “Spherically Symmetric Metric” () is used for describing the “gravitational interaction” of a “flat” or “curved” Differential Geometry of Space, Time, & Surfaces, of spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gravitational field, in the presence or absence of condensed mass, matter or energy.
Next, a new algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric; using one general equation which is composed of, Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients.
In the modern literature of General Relativity (GR), it is common mathematical formalism, to use a Einstein tensor mathematical expression, in order to describe, a generalized Spherically Symmetric ().
Using the Einstein tensor mathematical expression of General Relativity, it also can satisfy the, Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients, algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” ().
Spherically Symmetric Metric – Einstein “Tensor” Metric Expression
1.1
The “Metric “Tensor” Coefficient” terms (), can take on values of one (1) to four (4), in this algorithm:
· Metric Coefficient (1) represents “space” ─ ()
· Metric Coefficient (2) represents “angular” “surface space” “latitude & longitude direction space” ─ ()
· Metric Coefficient (3) represents “time” ─ ()
For starters, let’s consider the following space, angle, and metric mathematical relations for a perfect fluid spherically symmetric gravitational field.
Differential Geometry “Individual” Cartesian & Spherical Coordinates, Radial Space, Latitude Space, and Longitude Space Metrics
1.1
Differential Geometry – Cartesian & Spherical Coordinates, Surface Metrics
1.2
Black Hole Event Horizon – Schwarzschild SemiMajor Radius
1.3
SpaceTime – Isotropic “square” Speed of Light
1.4
Spacetime – Square of the Speed of Space (Vacuum Energy Velocity)
1.5
Next, we will present a new algorithm with a “classical mathematical” description of “generalized mathematical formalism” for describing the Spherically Symmetric Metric () that describes Differential Geometry of Space, Time, & Surfaces, of a perfect fluid, spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gravitational field.
Using either the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric, a Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients, algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), is discussed below.
Three (3) Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients Mathematical Form
The “Metric Coefficients” of the generalized Spherically Symmetric Metric (), are given by the symbols ().
The “Space” metric coefficient is given by the symbol ().
The “Angular” metric coefficient is given by the symbol ().
The “Time” metric coefficient is given by the symbol ().
The “Metric Components” of the generalized Spherically Symmetric Metric (), are given by the symbols ().
The “Space” metric component is given by the symbol ().
The “Angular” metric component is given by the symbol ().
The “Time” metric component is given by the symbol ().
The Spherically Symmetric Metric () describes Differential Geometry of Space, Time, & Surfaces, of a perfect fluid, spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gravitational field; given in its generalized three (3) components & three (3) metric coefficients mathematical forms, below:
Three (3) Components & Three (3) MetricCoefficients Mathematical Forms
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface space, time)
– ()
1.6
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface angle, time)
– ()
1.7
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface space, time)
– ()
1.8
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, angle, time)
– ()
1.9
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (Cartesian (x, y, & z) space, time)
– ()
1.10
Below is a table of various metric coefficients, which satisfy the Spherically Symmetric Metric () equations and theories of gravitation given by: Euclidean “Flat Space”, Minkowski “Flat SpaceTime”, Schwarzschild “Curved Spacetime”, & Einstein “Curved Spacetime”
Spherically Symmetric Metric Coefficients – Three (3) Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients Math Form – “Super Principia” Metric Theory of Gravitation 



Metric Coefficients 
Space Coefficient 
Angular Coefficient 
Time Coefficient 
Euclidean Metric(Euclidean) (Flat Space) 

Minkowski Metric(PseudoEuclidean) (Flat SpaceTime) 

Schwarzschild Metric(NonEuclidean) (Curved SpaceTime) 


EinsteinMetric(NonEuclidean) (Static) (Curved SpaceTime) 

The Square of the Speed of Light “SpaceTime” Invariant, equation:
1.1
Spherically Symmetric Metrics – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients Math Form – “Super Principia” Metric Theory of Gravitation 



Euclidean Metric(Euclidean) (Flat Space) 

Minkowski Metric(PseudoEuclidean) (Flat SpaceTime) 

EinsteinMetric(NonEuclidean) (Static) (Curved SpaceTime) 

Schwarzschild Metric(NonEuclidean) (Curved SpaceTime) 

1.2. Euclidean “Flat Space” Spherically Symmetric Metric – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients – Algorithm
Next we will describe the Euclidean “Flat Space” Metric, its three (3) components and three (3) metric coefficients.
The Euclidean Metric Coefficients – Defined
1.2
Euclidean Metric – Spherically Symmetric Metric ()
1.3
Substituting the metric coefficients
1.4
The Euclidean Space in threedimensional Cartesian vector space, with signature (+, +, +), (x, y, z).
1.5
1.3. Minkowski “Flat SpaceTime” Spherically Symmetric Metric – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients – Algorithm
Next we will describe the Minkowski “Flat SpaceTime” Metric, its three (3) components and three (3) metric coefficients.
The Minkowski Metric Coefficients – Defined
1.6
Minkowski Metric – Spherically Symmetric Metric ()
1.7
Substituting the metric coefficients
1.8
From the above the Euclidean Metric is derived
Euclidean Metric – Spherically Symmetric Metric ()
1.9
The Euclidean and the Minkowski “Metrics” () and geodesic “line elements” (), are “mass independent” equations that describe the causality of “flat” space, spacetime, or the gravitational field.
Spherically Symmetric Metric – Euclidean Metric
1.1
Spherically Symmetric Metric – Minkowski “PseudoEuclidean” Metric
1.2
The limits of integration for the Euclidean and the Minkowski “Metrics” and geodesic “line elements” () is described below.
On an orthonormal basis the Minkowski Space is also a fourdimensional Cartesian vector space with signature (−, +, +, +), (t, x, y, z).
1.10
1.4. Schwarzschild “Curved SpaceTime” Spherically Symmetric Metric – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients – Algorithm
Next we will describe the Schwarzschild Metric (Dynamic Vacuum Energy Condition), its three (3) components and three (3) metric coefficients.
The Schwarzschild Metric Coefficients – Defined
1.11
Schwarzschild Metric – Spherically Symmetric Metric ()
1.12
Substituting the metric coefficients
On an orthonormal basis the Schwarzschild “Dynamic” Space is also a fourdimensional Cartesian vector space with signature (−, +, +, +), (t, x, y, z).
1.13
The “Schwarzschild” Spherically Symmetric Metric () “Dynamic Spacetime” condition, corresponds to a gradient gravitational vortex system, where the, “Refraction/Condensing Pressure” () on the exterior surface, of the Black Hole Event Horizon, is zero; ().
1.14
The “Schwarzschild” Spherically Symmetric Metric () for a “Static Vacuum Energy Spacetime” predicts a “Physical Singularity” located at zero radius (), and a “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, Schwarzschild Radius (), of the gradient gravitational field.
To avoid this problem the mainstream physics community has reject the “Schwarzschild” Spherically Symmetric Metric (), in favor of: Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates, and Rindler coordinate; and which neither have a “Coordinate Singularity”.
The “Coordinate Singularity” is not a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric. My goal is to find a solution to the “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, Schwarzschild Radius (), of the “Schwarzschild” Spherically Symmetric Metric ().
If this “Coordinate Singularity”problem is resolved, the Schwarzschild metric is considered a valid description for the physical description of the curvature of space, spacetime, or gradient gravitation field, surrounding, and in the presence of a condensed mass, matter, or energy of an isolated system mass body.
The Schwarzschild Metric () predicts the “Physical Singularity” located at zero radius, is a value that approaches zero, as the radius approaches zero. The “Physical Singularity” is a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric.
1.15
1.16
The Schwarzschild Metric () “describes” a fluid dynamic vacuum, condition “Rarefaction/Condensing Pressure” of space, where the “Inertial Mass Gravitational Force of Attraction” and the “Isotropic Spacetime Aether Gravitational Force of Attraction” interact, and where there is zero Rarefaction Pressure (), on the surface of the Black Hole Event Horizon, for any isolated net inertial mass system body.
The Schwarzschild Metric () is a Spherically Symmetric Metric that is considered “NonEuclidean”. The Schwarzschild Metric () describes the differential geometry of a “curved/warped” spacetime or gravitational fields, in the presence of condensed mass and energy, for the following forces, energies, densities, and pressures:
“Dynamic” Inhomogeneous Gradient Gravitational Field ─ Volume Mass Density
· Dark Matter “Dynamic” – Rarefaction Mass Density, Force & Pressure
· Dark Energy – Space Expansion & Gravitational Redshift
·
Centrifugal/Centripetal Curvature/Rotation – Angular Momentum & Angular Velocity
(Angle & Space Invariance or Covariance) – ()
1.5. Einstein “Curved SpaceTime” Spherically Symmetric Metric – Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients – Algorithm
Next we will describe the Einstein Metric (Static Vacuum Energy Condition), its three (3) components and three (3) metric coefficients.
The Einstein Metric Coefficients – Defined
1.17
Einstein Metric – Spherically Symmetric Metric ()
1.18
Substituting the metric coefficients
On an orthonormal basis the Einstein “Static” Space is also a fourdimensional Cartesian vector space with signature (−, +, +, +), (t, x, y, z).
1.19
The “Einstein” Spherically Symmetric Metric () corresponds to a gradient gravitational vortex system, where the, Isotropic Aether Gravitational Field Pressure () is equal to twice (2) the “Inertial Mass towards Mass Gravitational Attraction” (), on the exterior surface, of the Black Hole Event Horizon, and is non zero; ().
1.20
The “Einstein” Spherically Symmetric Metric () for a “Static Vacuum Energy Spacetime” predicts a “Physical Singularity” located at zero radius (), and a “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, Schwarzschild Radius (), of the gradient gravitational field.
To avoid this problem the mainstream physics community has reject the “Einstein” Spherically Symmetric Metric(), in favor of: Kruskal–Szekeres coordinates, Eddington–Finkelstein coordinates, and Rindler coordinate; and which neither have a “Coordinate Singularity”.
The “Coordinate Singularity” is not a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric. My goal is to find a solution to the “Coordinate Singularity” located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, Schwarzschild Radius (), of the “Einstein” Spherically Symmetric Metric().
If this “Coordinate Singularity”problem is resolved, the Einstein metric is considered a valid description for the physical description of the curvature of space, spacetime, or gradient gravitation field, surrounding, and in the presence of a condensed mass, matter, or energy of an isolated system mass body.
The Einstein Metric () predicts the “Physical Singularity” located at zero radius, is a value that approaches zero, as the radius approaches zero. The “Physical Singularity” is a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric.
1.21
1.22
The Einstein Metric () “describes” a fluid dynamic vacuum, condition “Rarefaction/Condensing Pressure” of space, where the “Inertial Mass Gravitational Force of Attraction” and the “Isotropic Spacetime Aether Gravitational Force of Attraction” interact, and where there is nonzero Rarefaction Pressure (), on the surface of the Black Hole Event Horizon, for any isolated net inertial mass system body.
The Einstein Metric () is a Spherically Symmetric Metric that is considered “NonEuclidean”. The Einstein Metric () describes the differential geometry of a “curved/warped” spacetime or gravitational fields, in the presence of condensed mass and energy, for the following forces, energies, and pressures:
“Static” Inhomogeneous Gradient Gravitational Field ─ Volume Mass Density
· Dark Matter “Static” Aether “Light” Isotropic Pressure – Inhomogeneous Volume Mass Density (Time Dependence) – ()
· Dark Energy – Space Expansion & Gravitational Redshift
·
Centrifugal/Centripetal Angular/Rotation – Angular Momentum & Angular Velocity
(Angle & Space Invariance or Covariance) – ()
1.6. “New” Algorithm for Describing Spherically Symmetric Metrics of a Gravitational Field Using – Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients
Next, we will describe “new” two (2) components mathematical formalism for describing the Spherically Symmetric Metric (), which describes the Differential Geometry of Space, Time, & Surfaces, of a perfect fluid spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gravitational field; and where there are gravitational interaction in consideration.
The “new” forms of the “Spherically Symmetric Metrics” that produce physical and observable results, of matter in motion, through a space or spacetime, that is either flat or curved; or has matter present or absent, in that space or spacetime.
Thus, we will consider only the following Spherically Symmetric Metrics:
· Euclidean Metric – “Flat Space or Flat Spacetime”
· Minkowski Metric – “Flat Spacetime” (PseudoEuclidean)
· Schwarzschild Metric – “Dynamic Curved Spacetime” (NonEuclidean)
· Einstein Metric – “Static Curved Spacetime” (NonEuclidean)
Using the Einstein tensor mathematical expression of General Relativity, it also can satisfy the, Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients, algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” ().
Spherically Symmetric Metric – Einstein “Tensor” Metric Expression
1.2
The “Metric “Tensor” Coefficient” terms (), can take on values of one (1) to four (4), in this algorithm:
· Metric Coefficient (1) represents “spacetime” ─ ()
· Metric Coefficient (2) represents “surface space” “latitude & longitude direction space” ─ ()
The “new” Spherically Symmetric Metric () algorithm, describes the Differential Geometry of Space, & Surfaces for either the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric, with two (2) components & two (2) metric coefficients.
Two (2) Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients Mathematical Form
The “Metric Coefficients” of the “new” Spherically Symmetric () Metric, are given by the symbols ().
The “Spacetime” metric coefficient is given by the symbol ().
The “Angular” metric coefficient is given by the symbol ().
The “Metric Components” of the generalized Spherically Symmetric Metric (), are given by the symbols ().
The “Spacetime” metric component is given by ().
The “Angular” metric component is given by the symbol ().
The “Spacetime” metric coefficient is given by the symbol (), is a unitless quantity that describes the amount of curvature in a localized region of space, spacetime, or the gravitational field. The curvature is given by the “Metric Coefficient” ()
If there is “curvature” in a space, spacetime, or the gravitational field, then the “flatspace” “Euclidean” geometry is modified and becomes “NonEuclidean”; and this is described mathematically by varying the value of the “Metric Coefficient” (), and multiplying by the differential Radial () component; to get ().
By varying the “Metric Coefficient” () value, the Spherically Symmetric Metric () is generalized, and can be used to describe the various metrics: Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, Schwarzschild Metric, etc…
The “new” Spherically Symmetric Metric () describes Differential Geometry of Space, & Surfaces, of a perfect fluid, spherically symmetric space, spacetime, or gravitational field; and is given in its generalized two (2) components & two (2) metric coefficients, mathematical forms below:
Two (2) Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients Mathematical Form
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface angle)
– ()
1.23
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface angle)
– ()
1.24
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface space, time)
– ()
1.25
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (space, surface angle)
– ()
1.26
Spherically Symmetric Metric – function of (Cartesian (x, y, & z) space)
– ()
1.27
Spacetime Invariant – Square of the Speed of Light
Spacetime – Square of the Speed of Space (Vacuum Energy Velocity)
Spherically Symmetric Metric “Coefficients” – “Gaussian” Algorithm – Two (2) Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients Math Form – “Super Principia” Metric Theory of Gravitation 



Metric Coefficients 
Space Coefficient 
Angular Coefficient 
Integration Limits 
Euclidean Metric(Euclidean) (Flat Space) 

Minkowski Metric(PseudoEuclidean) (Flat SpaceTime) 


EinsteinMetric(NonEuclidean) (Static) (Curved SpaceTime) 


Schwarzschild Metric(NonEuclidean) (Curved SpaceTime) 

Spherically Symmetric Metric “Gaussian” Algorithm – Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients Math Form – “Super Principia” Metric Theory of Gravitation 



Euclidean Metric(Euclidean) (Flat Space) 

Minkowski Metric(PseudoEuclidean) (Flat SpaceTime) 

EinsteinMetric(NonEuclidean) (Static) (Curved SpaceTime) 

Schwarzschild Metric(NonEuclidean) (Curved SpaceTime) 

Next, is a set of graphs of the various Euclidean and NonEuclidean Spherically Symmetric Metrics () – Exterior & Interior Black Hole Event Horizon Solutions:
2. Conclusion
This work was written to physicists that are interested in understanding from a conceptual view, “Flat Geometry” Euclidean Space, and “Curved Geometry” NonEuclidean Space; as a description for causality of gravity, or general motion in a gravitational field.
The Euclidean and the Minkowski “Euclidean” Metrics () describes the causality and geometry of the “flat” space, spacetime, and the gravitational field; and is independent of the condensed mass, matter, or energy absent or present, in a localized region, of a space or spacetime, or gradient gravitational field under consideration.
The Schwarzschild and the Einstein “NonEuclidean” Metrics () describes the causality and geometry of the “curvature” of space, spacetime, and the gravitational field, and is used in conjunction, with a fluid mechanical model, Perfect Fluid “Static or Dynamic” Vacuum Energy Solution for the causality gravitation; and is dependent of the condensed mass, matter, or energy absent or present, in a localized region, of a space or spacetime, or gradient gravitational field under consideration.
It was demonstrated that the “Coordinate Singularity” () located at the Black Hole Event Horizon, Schwarzschild Radius (), is not a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric; and is a problem to be solved.
If this “Coordinate Singularity”problem is resolved, the Schwarzschild and Einstein metrics are considered a valid description for the physical description of the curvature of space, spacetime, or gradient gravitation field, surrounding, and in the presence of a condensed mass, matter, or energy of an isolated system mass body.
The “Physical Singularity” () located at zero radius (), is a value that approaches zero, as the radius approaches zero. The “Physical Singularity” () is a natural artifact for any NonEuclidean metric; and cannot be eliminated.
This paper described a new algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” (), that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric; using an algorithm which is composed of, Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients; and likewise an algorithm using Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients.
In future works, a new algorithm, that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric using a general equation which is composed of:
· Four (4) Metric Components & Four (4) Metric Coefficients
The Four (4) Metric Components & Four (4) Metric Coefficients algorithm is the current model used by the mainstream literature, and physics community; today.
Below are the topics that were discussed in this paper:
References
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schwarzschild_geodesics
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